National Development and Reform Commission: medium and long-term special energy conservation plan
Energy conservation is a long-term strategic guideline for China's economic and social development, and it is also an extremely urgent task at present. This plan is formulated to promote energy conservation and consumption reduction, alleviate energy bottlenecks, build an energy-saving society, promote sustainable economic and social development, and achieve the grand goal of building a well-off society in an all-round way.
The planning period is divided into “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” and 2020, with the focus on energy conservation goals and development priorities by 2010, and the goals for 2020.
The plan is divided into five parts: the status quo of energy use in China, the situation and tasks faced by energy conservation work, the guiding ideology, principles and objectives of energy conservation, key areas of energy conservation and key projects, and safeguard measures.
The special energy-saving plan is an important part of China's energy medium- and long-term development plan, and also the guiding document for medium- and long-term energy-saving work in China and the basis for energy-saving project construction.
(Note: The plan uses the preliminary adjustments by the National Bureau of Statistics for relevant figures such as energy production, total consumption, and GDP energy consumption in 2000 and 2002.)
table of Contents
I. Current status of energy utilization in China
Second, the situation and tasks faced by energy conservation work
Third, the guiding ideology, principles and objectives of energy conservation
4. Key areas of energy conservation and key projects
V. Safeguard measures
I. Current status of energy utilization in China
(1) Characteristics of energy consumption
In 2002, the country's total primary energy consumption was 1.514 billion tons of standard coal, an increase of 527 million tons of standard coal compared with 1990, an increase of 53%, an average annual increase of 3.6%. Among them, coal accounted for 66.3%, oil accounted for 23.5%, natural gas accounted for 2.6%, hydropower and nuclear power accounted for 7.6%.
China's energy consumption has the following main characteristics:
1. Energy consumption is dominated by coal, and environmental issues are increasingly prominent. In 2002, coal consumption was 1.42 billion tons, an increase of 34% over 1990, with an average annual growth rate of 2.5%. Nearly 70% of the raw coal is directly burned without washing. The sulfur dioxide and soot emissions from coal burning account for about 70-80% of the total emissions, and the acid rain area formed by sulfur dioxide emissions accounts for one-third of the country's land area; fossil fuels Carbon dioxide emissions are the main source of greenhouse gases in China.
2. The proportion of high-quality energy is rising, and oil safety cannot be ignored. In 2002, oil, natural gas, hydropower and other high-quality energy consumption accounted for 33.7% of total energy consumption, an increase of 9.9 percentage points over 1990. The proportion of oil in total consumption increased from 16.6% in 1990 to 23.5%. 6.9 percentage points. Since the "Ninth Five-Year Plan", transportation oil has shown rapid growth, especially for transportation and transportation. The average annual growth rate is much higher than the growth rate of GDP during the same period. Since China began to become a net importer of oil in 1993, the degree of dependence on foreign countries has increased year by year. In 2002, the net import of oil was 81.3 million tons, and the dependence on foreign countries was 32.8%.
3. Industrial energy is high, and structural adjustment has a long way to go. In 2002, the primary, secondary and tertiary industries and domestic energy consumption accounted for 4.4%, 69.3%, 14.9% and 11.4% of the total energy consumption, respectively. Among them, industrial energy accounts for 68.3%, and has remained at around 70% since 1990. Although the statistical caliber is not completely comparable, compared with the composition of foreign energy consumption, China's industrial energy use is obviously higher. In the process of promoting industrialization, the task of adjusting the economic structure is very arduous.
4. The energy used for living has improved and the energy level is still very low. In 2002, urban and rural residents used 2001 billion kWh of electricity, 17.7 billion cubic meters of natural gas and gas, and 11.69 million tons of liquefied petroleum gas. The proportion of domestic energy consumption rose from 3.7%, 1.66%, and 1.72% in 1990 to 14.4%. %, 6.8%, 11.8%. However, the level of energy use is still very low, and the per capita living power consumption is 156 kWh, which is only equivalent to 7.7% in Japan and 4% in the United States.
(2) Energy utilization
Since the reform and opening up, under the guidance of the Party Central Committee and the State Council on the principle of “energy development and conservation simultaneously and saving first,” all regions, departments and enterprises have vigorously carried out energy conservation work and achieved remarkable results.
1. Energy efficiency has improved.
Energy consumption per unit of output value. According to the 1990 constant price, the energy consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP decreased from 5.32 tons of standard coal in 1990 to 2.68 tons of standard coal in 2002, a drop of 50%, and the average annual energy saving rate was 5.6%.
Energy consumption per unit of product. Compared with 1990, the coal consumption of thermal power supply decreased from 427 grams of standard coal per kWh to 392 grams of standard coal. The comparable energy consumption per ton of steel dropped from 997 kilograms of standard coal to 784 kilograms of standard coal. The comprehensive energy consumption of cement was per ton. 201 kg of standard coal fell to 181 kg of standard coal, and the comprehensive energy consumption of large-scale synthetic ammonia (using oil and gas as raw materials) decreased from 1,343 kg of standard coal per tonne to 1,273 kg of standard coal. The gap between unit product energy consumption and international advanced level has narrowed by 6.1, 37.1, 18.7, and 3.1 percentage points respectively.
energy efficiency. The energy efficiency in 2000 was 33%, an increase of 5 percentage points over 1990. Among them, energy processing, conversion, storage and transportation efficiency was 67.8%, and terminal energy utilization efficiency was 49.2%.
2. Energy conservation has achieved significant economic and social benefits.
Calculated by the ring method, in the 12 years from 1991 to 2002, the accumulated savings and energy use was about 700 million tons of standard coal. The energy consumption supported the growth rate of 9.7% per annum in the national economy with an average annual growth rate of 3.6%. Saving and using less energy is equivalent to reducing sulfur dioxide emissions by 10.5 million tons. Energy conservation plays an important role in alleviating the contradiction between energy supply and demand, improving the quality and efficiency of economic growth, reducing environmental pollution, and ensuring the sustained, rapid and healthy development of the national economy.
3. The gap between energy efficiency and foreign countries.
Energy consumption per unit of output value. According to research by relevant institutions, the energy consumption per million US dollars of GDP calculated at the current exchange rate in 2000 is 1,274 tons of standard coal in China, 2.4 times higher than the world average, 2.5 times higher than the United States, the European Union, Japan and India. 4.9 times, 8.7 times and 0.43 times.
Energy consumption per unit of product. In 2000, the energy consumption per unit of the main products of power, steel, nonferrous metals, petrochemicals, building materials, chemicals, light industry and textiles was 40% higher than the international advanced level. For example, the coal consumption of thermal power supply was 22.5%, and that of large and medium-sized steel enterprises was comparable. The energy consumption is 21.4%, the comprehensive energy consumption of copper smelting is 65%, the comprehensive energy consumption of cement is 45.3%, the comprehensive energy consumption of large synthetic ammonia is 31.2%, and the comprehensive energy consumption of paper and cardboard is 120%.
Energy efficiency of major energy-consuming equipment. In 2000, the average operating efficiency of coal-fired industrial boilers was about 65%, 15-20 percentage points lower than the international advanced level; the average efficiency of small and medium-sized motors was 87%, and the average design efficiency of fans and pumps was 75%, which was 5 percentage points lower than the international advanced level. The system operation efficiency is nearly 20% lower; the fuel economy level of motor vehicles is 25% lower than that of Europe, 20% lower than Japan, 10% lower than the overall US level; the fuel consumption of cargo vehicles is 7.6 liters per 100 kilometers, higher than the foreign advanced level. More than 1 times; oil consumption of inland river transport vessels is 10-20% higher than foreign advanced level.
Energy consumption per unit of building area. At present, the heating energy consumption per unit of building area in China is equivalent to 2-3 times that of developed countries with similar climatic conditions. According to expert analysis, it is realistic and feasible for China's public buildings and residential buildings to fully implement the 50% energy saving standard; compared with developed countries, even after achieving the goal of 50% energy saving, there is still about 50% energy saving potential.
energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is 10 percentage points lower than the international advanced level. For example, the average efficiency of thermal power units is 33.8%, which is 6-7 percentage points lower than the international advanced level. The intermediate link of energy utilization (processing, conversion, storage and transportation) has a large loss and a serious waste.
The gap between China's energy use efficiency and foreign countries shows that energy saving potential is huge. According to the research of the relevant units, according to the energy consumption per unit of product and the energy consumption of the end-use energy equipment compared with the international advanced level, the current energy-saving potential of China is about 300 million tons of standard coal.
The main reason for the low efficiency of China's energy use is the extensive economic growth mode, unreasonable structure, backward technical equipment and low management level. First, the structure is unreasonable. The tertiary industry with low energy consumption in the industrial structure (the energy consumption of output value is 43% of the energy consumption of the output value of the secondary industry), especially the service industry is obviously lagging behind. The added value of China's tertiary industry accounts for 33% of GDP, while the world average is about 63%; high-energy heavy chemical industry in the secondary industry has a high proportion, industrialization is still mainly based on volume expansion, high consumption, high waste, heavy pollution; low proportion of high-quality energy in energy consumption structure; small scale of enterprises and low industrial concentration . Second, the process technology and equipment are backward. The proportion of backward technologies in key industries is still high. For example, the comprehensive energy consumption per ton of large-scale iron and steel enterprises is about 200 kilograms of standard coal, and the coal consumption of 30,000 kW units and 50,000 kW units per kWh of coal-fired power plants is 100 grams. Above standard coal, the comprehensive energy consumption of large and medium-sized synthetic ammonia tons is about 300 kilograms of standard coal. Third, the management level is low, the statistical, measurement, and assessment systems closely related to energy conservation are imperfect, the level of informatization is low, and the loss is wastage.
(3) Major problems in energy conservation work
First, there is a lack of sufficient understanding of the importance of energy conservation, and the policy of prioritizing energy conservation has not been implemented. In the development of ideas, there is a tendency to re-development, light economy, heavy speed and light efficiency. Energy conservation is only an expedient measure to alleviate the contradiction between energy supply and demand. When supply is tight, energy conservation is emphasized. When supply is relaxed, energy conservation can be relaxed. One-sidedly, energy conservation can rely on the market. The mechanism is realized, and there is not enough understanding of the important role of energy conservation in transforming economic growth mode, implementing sustainable development strategy, and the important role of the government in energy conservation management. The principle of energy conservation priority in all aspects of macroeconomic policy has not been fully reflected. Some local and industrial energy management has been weakened, and energy conservation has not yet become the conscious action of most enterprises and all citizens.
Second, energy conservation laws and regulations are not perfect. In 1998, the "Energy Conservation Law" was promulgated and implemented, but there are laws that are not compliant, the phenomenon of lax enforcement is serious, the supporting regulations are imperfect, and the operationality needs to be improved. The formulation of energy efficiency standards has lagged, and motor fuel economy standards have not yet been issued. Most industrial energy equipment (products) have no energy efficiency standards. Although design standards for building energy efficiency of 50% in various climate zones have been formulated and promulgated, less than 5% of the newly added buildings in cities nationwide have reached the energy-saving building design standards.
The third is the lack of effective energy conservation incentives. Practices at home and abroad have shown that energy conservation is a market failure in many respects and requires macroeconomic regulation and guidance by the government. At present, in terms of fiscal and taxation policies, the support for energy-saving renovation, energy-saving equipment development and application, and energy-saving incentives is insufficient, and no effective energy-saving incentive mechanism has been established.
Fourth, a new energy-saving mechanism that meets the requirements of the market economy system has not yet been established. The energy-saving management system formed under the planned economic system has not adapted to the requirements of the new situation. New energy-saving new technologies such as comprehensive resource planning, power demand side management, contract energy management, energy efficiency label management, and voluntary agreements have not been widely implemented in China, and some are still in the pilot and exploration stage. The reform of the heating system is lagging behind, and it is difficult to implement it due to various factors.
Fifth, the development and promotion of energy-saving technologies are not enough. Energy conservation must rely on technological progress. Since the reform and opening up, China has developed, demonstrated (introduced) and promoted a large number of new energy-saving technologies, new processes and new equipment, and the level of energy-saving technology has been greatly improved. However, in general, insufficient investment, weak innovation capability, and advanced and applicable energy-saving technologies, especially the development of common and key technologies with significant driving effects. At the same time, due to the lack of policies and mechanisms to encourage the promotion of energy-saving technologies, most enterprises have difficulties in financing and it is difficult to promote and apply energy-saving technologies.
Sixth, energy conservation supervision and service organization capacity building lags behind. At present, there are 145 energy conservation monitoring (technical service) centers nationwide, and most of them are entrusted by the government to carry out energy conservation law enforcement supervision and monitoring. However, in general, most energy-saving monitoring (technical service) institutions are lagging behind in capacity building, monitoring equipment is backward, information is lacking, talent shortage is insufficient, and overall strength is not strong. The energy statistics system is imperfect, energy-saving information is not smooth, and it is difficult to adapt to the needs of energy-saving work.
Second, the situation and tasks faced by energy conservation work
The 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that by 2020 China will achieve the goal of building a well-off society in an all-round way. With the increase of population, the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, especially the rapid development of heavy chemical industry and transportation, the demand for energy will increase substantially. The contradiction of energy constraints faced by economic development and the environmental pollution caused by energy use will be more prominent.
First, the contradiction of energy constraints is prominent. To achieve the goal of quadrupling GDP by 2020 compared with 2000, China's steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, chemicals, cement and other high-energy heavy chemical industries will accelerate development; with the improvement of living standards, consumption structure upgrades, automobiles and households A large number of electrical appliances entered the family; the urbanization process accelerated, and the building and living energy consumption increased substantially. For example, according to the growth trend of energy consumption in the past three years, the energy demand will reach more than 4 billion tons of standard coal by 2020. Such huge demand will bring serious problems in coal, oil and power supply and energy security. According to the medium- and long-term energy development plan, in consideration of energy-saving factors, the total energy consumption will require 3 billion tons of standard coal by 2020. To meet this demand, whether it is to increase domestic energy supply or use foreign resources, there is tremendous pressure. Energy infrastructure construction has a large investment and long cycle, and it also faces a series of problems such as water resources and transportation constraints. The rapid growth of energy demand poses severe challenges to the availability of energy resources, carrying capacity, and national energy security.
Second, environmental problems have intensified. China is one of the few countries with coal as its main energy source, and it is also the world's largest coal consumer. The soot-type pollution has been quite serious. With the rapid growth of motor vehicles, atmospheric pollution in large cities has developed from soot-type pollution to mixed pollution of soot and motor vehicle exhaust. Extensive use of energy has caused serious damage to the environment. At present, China emits more than 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide annually, and the acid rain area accounts for 30% of the country's land area, which greatly exceeds the environmental capacity. Although China's energy structure will continue to improve by 2020, the proportion of coal consumption will decline, but the total coal consumption will still increase substantially, and economic development faces enormous environmental pressure.
Energy is a strategic resource and an important material basis for building a well-off society in an all-round way. To solve the problem of energy constraints, on the one hand, we must open source, increase domestic exploration and development efforts, speed up project construction, and make full use of foreign resources. On the other hand, we must adhere to saving priorities and take a leap-forward approach to energy conservation. Energy conservation is a realistic choice to alleviate the contradiction of energy constraints, a fundamental measure to solve energy and environmental problems, an important way to improve the quality and efficiency of economic growth, and an inevitable requirement for enhancing the competitiveness of enterprises. No big energy saving, it is difficult Support the sustained, rapid, coordinated and healthy development of the national economy; without taking the road of leap-forward energy conservation, new industrialization is difficult to achieve. We must fully understand the importance of energy conservation from a strategic perspective, establish a sense of urgency, enhance the sense of crisis and sense of responsibility, vigorously save energy and reduce consumption, improve energy efficiency, accelerate the building of an energy-saving society, and contribute to the goal of building a well-off society in an all-round way by 2020. .
Third, the guiding ideology, principles and objectives of energy conservation
(1) Guiding ideology
Conscientiously implement the spirit of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the Third and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the 16th CPC Central Committee, take the scientific development concept as the guide, adhere to the principle of energy conservation priority, and focus on greatly improving energy efficiency, transforming growth patterns, and adjusting economic structure. Accelerate technological progress as the fundamental, take the rule of law as the guarantee, focus on improving the energy efficiency of the terminal, improve regulations, improve policies, deepen reform, innovate mechanisms, strengthen publicity, strengthen management, gradually change production methods and consumption patterns, and form enterprises and society. Consciously save energy, accelerate the construction of an energy-saving society, and promote the sustainable development of the economy and society with the effective use of energy.
(2) Following the principle
1. Adhere to energy conservation as an important part of transforming economic growth. The fundamental reason for China's high energy consumption and high waste is the extensive growth mode. To greatly improve energy efficiency, we must fundamentally change the extensive development model that relies solely on extensional development, neglecting potential development, and has high technological content, good economic returns, low resource consumption, less environmental pollution, and full use of human resources. The new industrialization road strives to achieve the harmonization and unification of sustained economic development, comprehensive social progress, sustainable use of resources, continuous improvement of the environment and a virtuous circle of ecology.
2. Adhere to the combination of energy conservation and structural adjustment, technological progress and enhanced management. By adjusting the industrial structure, product structure and energy consumption structure, eliminating backward technologies and equipment, accelerating the development of the tertiary industry with service industry as the main representative and the high-tech industry with information technology as the main representative, transforming with high-tech and advanced applicable technologies Traditional industries promote the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure and improve the overall technical equipment level of the industry. Develop and promote the application of advanced and efficient energy conservation and alternative technologies, comprehensive utilization technologies and new energy and renewable energy utilization technologies. Strengthen management, reduce waste and waste, and improve energy efficiency.
3. Insist on the role of the market mechanism and the government's macro-control. Market-oriented, enterprise-oriented, through the deepening of reforms, innovation mechanisms, give full play to the basic role of market allocation of resources. By formulating and implementing regulations and standards, the government strengthens policy guidance and information guidance, creates an institutional environment, policy environment and market environment conducive to energy conservation, and establishes a mechanism for enterprises to comply with the requirements of the market economic system to promote energy conservation.
4. Adhere to the combination of legal management and policy incentives. Increment should be strictly market access, strengthen law enforcement supervision and inspection, supplemented by policy support, and control the development of high energy-consuming enterprises, energy-intensive buildings and inefficient equipment (products) from the source. The stocks should be tapped into potential, and under the premise of strict law enforcement, through structural incentives and information guidance, structural adjustment and technological progress should be accelerated.
5. Persist in highlighting key points, classifying guidance, and comprehensively advancing. For key energy-using units with annual energy consumption of more than 10,000 tons of standard coal, it must be strictly managed according to law, clear target measures, publicize energy consumption status, and strengthen supervision and inspection; while SMEs are strictly managing according to law, they should pay attention to policy guidance and provide services. The focus of transportation energy conservation is to add new vehicles, and to establish and implement vehicle fuel economy standards and supporting policies and systems. The focus of building energy conservation is to strictly implement energy-saving design standards and strengthen policy guidance. The focus of commercial and residential energy conservation is to improve energy efficiency standards for energy-using equipment, strict market access, and use market mechanisms to guide and encourage users and consumers to purchase energy-efficient products.
6. Adhere to the participation of the whole society. Energy conservation involves all walks of life and thousands of households. It requires the joint efforts of the whole society and active participation. Enterprises and consumers are the mainstay of energy conservation. They must change unreasonable production methods and consumption methods, and fulfill energy-saving responsibilities according to law. The government guides and regulates energy-using behaviors by providing laws, policies and standards to provide services for enterprises and consumers. Take the lead in energy conservation; intermediaries should play a role as a bridge and link between the government and enterprises, enterprises and enterprises.